A Short Half Century against Blindness.
On the death of Okwui Enwezor (1963-2019)
Okwui Enwezor, Lagos/ Nigeria, 2013, Photo: © Anne-Lena Michel
Despite the busy exhibition business, the past weekend at the Munich Haus der Kunst was very quiet. Footsteps in the large, empty central hall seemed almost like inappropriate noise. As the current editorial message on the website conveys, the team of the exhibition house mourns for his on last Friday deceased head Okwui Enwezor – and combines this with the expression of great gratitude for the "extension to our perspective" made possible by him, his new "guiding principle" of the exhibition house, but above all for "the conviction that the developmental lines of contemporary art are global and multi-layered and cannot be limited by geographic, conceptual and cultural boundaries." For the audience of the last weekend, the visit of Enwezors last great show to the work El-Anatsui as well seems to have been more in the sign of condolence.
Since Friday, the daily and specialist press has been full of tributes and obituaries to the exceptional curator Okwui Enwezor, who has so decisively shaped the international exhibition events and art debates of the past decades and enriched the entire exhibition and museum system with his globally expanded approach. For the discipline of art history, however, the enormous value of his work lies not only in the large, elementary exhibitions – in the format of a documenta 11 of 2002 or the Venice Biennale of 2015, through whose platform model and decentralized approach Enwezor set a rethinking in the perception of the actually global intertwined modern and contemporary art in motion.
Earlier exhibitions such as "Short Century: Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa 1945-1994" from 2001, which grounded on the cooperation of the Munich Villa Stuck with the Haus der Kulturen der Welt in Berlin and subsequently was shown internationally, focused specifically those political, Art and cultural histories, here of the African continent, which hitherto was devalued as historyless, and therefore excluded from the great (Western) historical narratives. Enwezor's merit was to counteract precisely this alleged lack of history and timelessness and to counter the status of a supposedly oral-based reference to the past in Africa with a tremendous array of art, images and source material, and thus at the same time to trace and relocate the cultural and artistic production and history since Modernity, in the Post-war period and phase of de-colonization up to the present time in its intellectual context.
In the later exhibition, "Rise and Fall of Apartheid: Photography and Bureaucracy of Daily Life", which was also realized at Haus der Kunst in 2013, Enwezor re-established this strategy. Once again he confronted the exhibition visitors with a wealth of press and artistic photography, images and written sources; again, through the globally contextualized presentation – here of the historical circumstances of violence and resistance in South Africa and of domestic and foreign policy negotiation and international solidarity – he highlighted the blind spots in the perception of historical, cultural and artistic forms of negotiation and proceedings. Like Jacques Derrida, to whom he devoted an interdisciplinary anthology to African-diasporic modernity, postmodernity and contemporaneity in 2009, seemingly also his concern is to situate art in a new understanding of a pictorially perceptible writtenness – as a form of fragile marking, a non-pathetic trace and fundamental (not textual) cultural expression.
Okwui Enwezor, who saw himself as a curator, author, and scholar, is brought together much more with his groundbreaking curatorial achievements than with his
academic approaches and numerous publications in and beyond the exhibition scene. In fact, not only did he draw attention to countless highly relevant artistic positions in their global contexts
and connections, which he opened up to postcolonial debates, but above all he also groundbreakingly questioned the objects and the
repertoire of methods in traditional art history. In addition to the demonstrative side of his exhibition projects showing these shifting processes away from the old centers of Western art, it is Enwezor merit to have enlarged the art historical focus into large transoceanic spatial contexts, in which the artistic connections and
cultural intertwining could only expose an aesthetic of migration – not as a special case of history, but as its continuum.
Already through topics of African and African-diasporic art since the multiple modernity, which are still in the debate of the Journal of Contemporary African Art, nka – founded by Enwezor in 1994, and edited together with Salah M. Hassan and Chika Okeke-Agulu since then – the critical negotiation extended in the transatlantic area long before his groundbreaking documenta 11 or the later post-war exhibition 2016/17 in Munich. Changing forms of contextualization and localization and a henceforth global intellectual dialogue on art and culture, especially after 1945 and across national borders and schools, but also the cross-media reappraisal of transcultural phenomena and artistic positions in scientific articles and reviews, in published interviews and art historical discussions in the Journal provided important impetus for a fundamental revision of a discipline that still struggles with the blind spots of its euro- and west-centered anchoring – even though the current politically driven public debates on the opening up of the art system, art institutions, or issues of restitution may give the impression of an already completed renewal process in the broadest possible consensus today.
With co-authors and publishers - such as Rory Bester, Nancy Condee, Olu Oguibe, Chika Okeke-Agulu, Terry Smith and many others - Okwui Enwezor has also sharpened the contours of African modern and contemporary art in extensive overviews (Reading the Contemporary, 1999; Contemporary African Art Since 1980, 2009). Numerous monographic publications on significant periods of time and on the oeuvre of individual African artists, such as Zarina Bhimji, Meschac Gaba, Bodys Isek Kingelez to El Anatsui, whom Enwezor mostly exhibited in big shows and thereby introduced to the specialist and to a wider public, but also his Munich publications on extraordinary diasporic and African-American artistic positions, such as Kendell Geers, Ellen Gallagher, Lorna Simpson oder Frank Bowling, stand for his successful concept of visualization and his systematic work in research desiderata.
Only in this way Enwezor could succeed in turning overseen or marginalized Anchor figures into objects of (now Western) art history as actors in a global art production that profits from continuous migration processes. Indeed, these inclusion processes made it possible to raise categorial questions to a entangled modern and contemporary art and to the issues of culturally determined concepts of temporality and art scientific periodization models from such an expanded perspective – as happened in his Anthology Antinomies of Art and Culture from 2009, which is dedicated to Jacques Derrida.
The end of Okwui Enwezor's so successful tenure at the Munich Haus der Kunst was obviously overshadowed by political tactics, penny-pinching and cultural incomprehension, but also by the provincialism of cultural policy makers, to which the already seriously ill curator expressed himself last year in the German magazine Der Spiegel: "Perhaps our concept did not fit into the current political climate," Enwezor summerized the causes of his premature farewell in August 2018. "The political climate in this country is causing many people to give up everything that has been achieved in the past decades. And you can see that most clearly in dealing with the refugees. (...)." The curator linked the expression of his disappointment over the lack of esteem of his work by the Bavarian cultural policy with the open criticism of a recently growing racism in the country, and of the diction of "hostility" in politics and the media – whereby he as well alluded at the political exploitation and consequences of the so called "refugee crisis" from the summer of 2015, and again opened an expanded, political context.
Okwui Enwezor's death, which we deeply mourn, leaves also an empty space in our discipline.
Imprint, see kritische berichte, 2/2019
In Memoriam Bisi Silva (1963-2019)
Bisi Silva, Lagos, Nigeria, 2013, Photo: © Anne-Lena Michel
On February 12, the Nigerian curator Bisi Silva died at the age of 56 years.
Members of our network got to know her under different circumstances and at different points in time as an energetic exhibition maker, scholar and author. Bisi Silva pioneered cultural policy in particular in Nigeria by creating conditions for artists, curators and art historians in which they could work. Energetically, empathically and always visionary she was able to initiate dialogues between different local positions, to incorporate international guests and to collaborate with colleagues from the Global South. Bisi took charge of the processing of African contemporary art and was so firmly committed to the realization of exhibition projects that also promoted young positions in Nigeria and elsewhere, who first made important artistic positions from Africa familiar to the art world. She researched artists from the history of Nigeria until the present and explorated the subject of diversity.
After completing her language studies in Dijon, Bisi Silva graduated from the Royal College of Art in London with a Masters degree in Curating Contemporary Art and then returned to Lagos, where she became one of the central figures in the art and exhibition scene. In 2007, she founded the Center for Contemporary Art, Lagos (CCA), which has become more than just an exhibition space for contemporary art, especially for young, even lesser-known or new positions, a crucial place of first exhibition and public perception.
It corresponded to Bisi Silva's self-image as a scholar and author of renowned art magazines and journals (such as Agufon, Artforum, Art Monthly, Metropolis M, or Third Text) and her tremendous vision of building up a comprehensive art and cultural science library in the CCA, one of a kind in Nigeria which made the CCA a highly important meeting place, a place of research and negotiation for the local art scene, as well as international researchers and guests. Especially in recent years, he became for Bisi Silva, who wanted to focus
more on artist projects, research projects and publications, a central work place, without renouncing her presence at all relevant international exhibitions of African and Diasporic contemporary art, on whose conception she took Influence.
Bisi Silva was an important mentor to many young artists in Nigeria. She understood this support as an elementary part of her work, and from this understanding she also initiated the Àsìkò program as an independent of the political-administrative structures and interdisciplinary wandering training center for curators, artists and theoreticians, which was hosted at various locations in Africa, including Senegal, Ghana and Ethiopia.
She worked as a curator or co-curator for countless exhibitions and international biennials, such as the 7th Biennale for Contemporary Art in Dakar (DakArt) of 2006 or the exhibition "Praxis: Art in Times of Uncertainty" as part of the 2nd Thessaloniki Biennial of 2009, and later became a member of the jury for the 55th Venice Biennial "The Encyclopaedic Palace" in 2013. In 2011, she realized the show "Moments of Beauty" in Finland, which drew on her decades of work with the Nigerian photographer J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere (1930 - 2014) that resulted in the publication of a first extensive monograph on the photographer's oeuvre (2015).
We will miss Bisi Silva heavily.
Imprint, see kritische berichte, 3/2019
Statement to the documenta14 (2017)
From the point of view of the
Research Group ART PRODUCTION AND ART THEORY IN THE AGE OF GLOBAL MIGRATION the documenta14 has:
_ through their theoretical subsidence,
_ through the diversity of chosen locations, exhibition formats and presentation forms as well as
_ by initiating public debates in various media formats
enabled heterogeneous, particularistic perspectives on art. The exhibition has established "other" narratives of art history – i.a. from the view of exiles, refugees, displaced persons – and thus from the perspective of those who are in the (western) art system generally not perceived or consciously marginalized.
With this concept and the choice of the two equal locations Athens and Kassel, the international curatorial team led by Adam Szymczyk deepened the critical approaches of earlier documenta editions as well as it expanded the narrowed view of the art production and art theory in the wake of global migration by a non-Eurocentric perspective.
The following aspects of the d14 should be emphasized as being particularly innovative and traiblazing:
On the critique of the documenta14
Particularly the thematic focus of the documenta14 on migration and flight, as well as the decisions of the curatorial team far from the art market, have led to violent, often disproportionate and unspecific critique while and after the exhibition – of the entire structure of the d14, and finally of the freedom of it’s artistic director (incl. the supervisory board, selection committee and rules of procedure).
For example, the German newspaper Die Zeit opposed against the installation of the Arnold Bode Prize winner 2017 Olu Oguibe on the Kassel Königsplatz and the new exhibition sites in the Kassel Nordstadt: "The Documenta offers platitudes [...] in excess [...]. A concrete obelisk quotes the Bible: 'I was a stranger and you hosted me'.” And the critique finally led to the statement "[...] that Documenta14 had crashed so badly at the end that she abuses the art and does not even shrink from making Kassel's migrant Nordstadt the backdrop for her repentance and lamentations [...]."(Die ZEIT, 15.6.2017).
Daily newspapers such as Die Welt called for the "absolute freedom" of the Documenta curators to be restricted, to control the supervisory board and, if necessary, to depose him, as well as to replace the artistic director if he turns out to be as "negligent and incompetent as Adam Szymczyk" (Die Welt, 28.7.2017); and the Neue Züricher Zeitung pleaded for the "disempowerment of the airy-fairy and intellectually outraged curatorial caste" and questioned the selection committee and the rules of procedure fundamentally (NZZ, 2.8.2017).
When, after many protests, the performance Auschwitz on the Beach was cancelled by the documenta management in Kassel and replaced by a conference – in which the Italian philosopher and activist Franco "Bifo" Berardi brought up and explained his (regretted) comparison of the European migration policy with the Holocaust – the predominantly negative judgment in the press was sealed. There were only a few voices left, who supported the documenta team's response on this issue, as Philipp Ruch, the spokesman for the "Center for Political Beauty" in the Süddeutsche Zeitung, (SZ, 27.8.2017) or the editor the magazine Monopol Elke Buhr, who was committed to the "great-like setting" of the show.
But there were also distinctly different voices, so by the German party “Alternative für Deutschland” (AfD), which called Olu Ogiube’s obelisk on the Königsplatz as "ideologizing and disfiguring art" and furthermore connected this statement with the announcement, to call for demonstrations in front of the Obelisk in "every attempt by refugees".
After the end of documenta14 and the news of the budget overrun, the exhibition motto "Learning from Athens" became the vehicle for the renewed stereotypical devaluation of Greece, as it had already emerged in the wake of the former financial crisis: The press response ranged from rather ironic headlines in the German television news Tagesthemen ("Learning from Athens – the failure documenta14", 14.9.2017) or on Deutschlandfunk ("To learn from Athens – does that mean debts?", 23.8.2017), up to more accusingly statements on a populist website close to the AfD ("Learned from Athens: The bankruptcy of documenta", achgut.com, 13.9.2017). This was followed by a complaint filed by the AfD at the Kassel prosecutor's office against the documenta management "for embezzlement” and to proceed “all other crimes coming into consideration". Here the overlapping of the (cultural) political dimension of the criticism of the documenta14 by particularly right-wing party-political objectives became particularly clear.
The prevailing image of the "failure" of the documenta has been increasingly relativized in recent months – through comments by the participating artists and associates, through analyzes in the press (including Deutschlandfunk, 17.9.2017, Der Spiegel, 3.12.2017), in art-historical journals (Kunstchronik, 12/2017), and an open letter from more than 130 museum directors, artists and other experts from 16.1.2018.
With our statement we want to support the previous comments and demands, as well as continue the debate.
The Research Group ART PRODUCTION AND ART THEORY IN THE AGE OF GLOBAL MIGRATION
vehemently takes a stand:
_against the exclusive, hasty and populist focus on the budget overrun of the d14, which was not singular in the history of the exhibition, and which is attributed to the longer duration and the exhibition in two places in the current case;
_against the political absorption of exhibitions and exhibition critique, which is guided by migrant / xenophobic interests and contradicts the specialized requirements of global exhibition projects;
_against the public distribution and media dissemination of marginalizing and segregating political content and political insistence in the context of the documenta14, which stand in stark contrast to the requirements for a balanced and competent press work as well as the cultural-political tasks in Germany, and which in the sense of a competent, free and open cultural promotion are not acceptable.
Looking to the future, the Research Group ART PRODUCTION AND ART THEORY IN THE AGE OF GLOBAL MIGRATION shares the view of the documenta14 team:
"that it is time to put the system of added value to such mega exhibitions as the documenta to the test. [...]. The expectations of ever-growing success and economic growth not only lead directly to exploitative working conditions, but also jeopardize the possibility that the exhibition will remain a place of critical action as well as an artistic field of experimentation."
However, this will only succeed,
policy-makers in Germany bethink of their duty of cultural promotion and educational mandate, fundamentally reflect the framework and budgeting of exhibition projects as the documenta, and if
they expressly speak up for the continuity of one of the most important exhibitions for contemporary art under artistic and curatorial acceptable economic and socio-political
_if curatorial independence and adequate artistic-curatorial working conditions are ensured before, on and after documenta (e.g. 5-year contracts, etc.);
_if, as an exposed international exhibition, documenta remains fundamentally committed to its history and the diversity of artistic positions and modes of work, as well as to the recent global conditions of contemporary art production beyond conditions of the art market.
On the subject of documenta14, Monopol aptly states: "Adam Szymczyk's documenta14 captures the best of documenta's history: Arnold Bode's insistence on democracy, Harald Szeemann's radical questioning of the concept of art and the courage to chaos, and from Catherine David and especially from Okwui Enwezor the insight that the Western art system is a west-centred, colonial organization that desperately needs a more global perspective." (Monopol, July 15, 2017).
For the research group ART PRODUCTION AND ART THEORIE IN THE AGE OF GLOBAL MIGRATION and its members, the documenta14 has provided new impulses for the further examination of the manifestations, cultural practices and subject-specific dimensions of migration and flight. The documenta14 has made it clear that artistic theory and practice in its history up to the present is generally not conceivable without a continuous, open and lively cultural exchange – and that the migration of actors, ideas, insights and things is the actual "normal case" plural cultural expression.
We hope from the next documenta that their artistic direction with an international team of curators will continue to develop different perspectives on the role of art and the conditions of global art production and present it to an international audience – free from market interests and without unprofessional, petty-bourgeois or right-wing populist motivated permanent criticism.
The statement will be published in Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte in June 2018.
Representing the Research Group ART PRODUCTION AND ART THEORY IN THE AGE OF GLOBAL MIGRATION, this statement is signed by:
Dr. Buket Altinoba, Institut für Kunst- und Baugeschichte, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
Dr. Charlotte Bank, Berlin
Dr. Irene Below, Werther/Westf.
Dr. Cathrine Bublatzky, Heidelberg Zentrum für Transkulturelle Studien, Universität Heidelberg
Prof. Dr. Burcu Dogramaci, Institut für Kunstgeschichte, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Prof. Dr. Elke Gaugele, Institut für das Künstlerische Lehramt, Akademie der Bildenden Künste Wien
Prof. Dr. Gabriele Genge, Institut für Kunst und Kunstwissenschaft, Universität Duisburg-Essen
Prof. Dr. Birgit Hopfener, Art History, Carleton University, Ottawa, CA
Prof. Dr. Alexandra Karentzos, Arbeitsbereich Mode und Ästhetik, Technische Universität Darmstadt
Dr. Franziska Koch, Cluster of Excellence Asia and Europe in a Global Context, Universität Heidelberg
Katrin Nahidi, Berlin
Dr. Miriam Oesterreich, Arbeitsbereich Mode und Ästhetik,Technische Universität Darmstadt
Prof. Dr. Kerstin Pinther, Institut für Kunstgeschichte, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Dr. Angela Stercken, Institut für Kunst und Kunstwissenschaft, Universität Duisburg-Essen
Apl. Prof. Dr. Melanie Ulz, Institut für Migrationsforschung und Interkulturelle Studien (IMIS), Universität Osnabrück
External signatures of the statement
Prof. Dr. Anja Baumhoff, Kunst- und Designgeschichte, Hochschule Hannover Fb III
Regula Rickert, Kunstpädagogin, neue-galerie.net
Dr. Anja Baumhoff, Hochschule Hannover